I think so, but finding consistent and aligned fitness and nutrition information online, in books, magazines, is like finding a needle in a haystack, so I've decided I will just draw my own educated conclusions.
First, here is what everyone will agree on as law concerning macronutrients; your body NEEDS protein and fat, i.e essential amino acids (what makes up protein), and essential fatty acids, to function properly. Secondly, your body does not need carbohydrates, i.e. people living on the ketogenic diet. Sadly, everything after these "laws" becomes blurry and conflicted, so what follows is merely my opinion on how to consume protein, fat, and carbs throughout the day.
Below, I have two columns and 3 rows of 6 graphs each. The graphs are separated by time of day you work out, as well as if you are trying to lose weight and "preserve" muscle or gain weight and build muscle. I say "preserve" muscle because when you are losing weight/in a calorie deficit it is VERY hard to gain muscle.
You will notice on the graphs that the x axis is labeled time of day, and the y axis is labeled percent. The black bar on each graph is when you are working out, and its width represents how long you workout should be (~45-60 minutes). The red bars represent protein, the green represent carbs, and the brown represent fat. The length each color takes up in each bar is the percent of that macronutrient you should be eating during that particular time of day, and the width is the time range that you should be consuming the food. The diagonal lines on some of the graphs are explained in the legend, but more or less are changes in your macronutrients for that particular bar that can speed up or slow down your weight gain or weight loss.
The most straightforward bars to interpret in this graph are the black bars, and the right adjacent bar touching (or almost touching it). This means that as soon as you are done working out, you need to eat. In the case of weight loss, it's about 50-50 protein and carbs with minimal fat, and in the case of weight gain carbs are more heavily favored. When you are done lifting weights, your body needs food to repair the damaged muscle. You will hear other opinions stating that it doesn't matter when you eat after a workout, but whether that's true or not, what harm have you done by eating right after?
Another straightforward visual is that there is a lot more green (carbs) on the weight gain column than the weight loss column. When you want to gain weight and muscle, eating more carbs is the way to go. When you want to lose more weight/body fat less carbs is the way to go. You still eat carbs when trying to lose weight, just not as many.
Fat is the least consumed macronutrient. As fat has twice as many calories as carbs and protein, eating a diet high in fat will inevitably lead to too many overall calories for you to lose weight, and too much fat gain instead of healthy weight gain. Even if you keep your fat in check, you are sacrificing your protein and carbs percentages, both vital for body fat loss and muscle gain.
Finally, protein remains high thought the day, regardless of weight loss or weight gain because when you lift you are tearing your muscles, so it's really important in muscle recovery.
Overall, the time of day that you are most active (your workout) the more carbs you can/should have around that time, and the less active you are, the more protein (and a little more fat) you should consume.
You hear this phrase from women more then men, as having the "bulky" look is not considered feminine in modern society, though I am sure I speak for others as well as myself that I can appreciate a woman with some nice muscle development, bulky or not, i digress. So where did this bulky ideology even begin? As we are products of society, it only makes sense that the bulk fear probably develops when a woman comes across a magazine, movie, bodybuilding competition conveying women (or men) with gigantic muscles. What we fail to understand is that lifting weights is not the culprit, but a small catalyst in addition to two much larger variables, calorie intake and supplements (mainly steroids).
I want you to compare your muscles to crocodiles. It only makes sense to use a wild animal in this example because I have a zoology degree. Did you know that crocodiles grow twice as fast in captivity then the wild? Why? Because in captivity they have more to eat, while in the wild they may go months without eating. So what's my point? The more calories you eat, the more your muscles will grow. In addition, if you've dissected the Nutrition part of my web site, you also understand that a calorie surplus comes with FAT GAIN. And this ladies and gentlemen is what causes the bulky look, the amount of body fat you hold, not how much muscle you have.
As far as supplements, I'll keep this short and sweet. Most of you probably believe bodybuilders, men or women are bulky, but rather, they are some of the leanest people in the world so stop confusing large muscles for bulk. Secondly, do you have testosterone? Do you take steroids? No? Then stop comparing yourself to people that do.